Paper by Professor Toshio Kawai Was Published in the Journal of Analytical Psychology, Vol. 67
A paper by Prof. Toshio Kawai was published in the Journal of Analytical Psychology, Vol. 67.
Toshio Kawai (2022). The symbolic and non-symbolic aspect of image: clinical and cultural reflections. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 67 (2), 621–634.
Dream work and undistorted dream in Freud
Analytical psychology and symbol
Jung and the directness of dream
Dual aspect of the non-symbolic
Pathology of the non-symbolic
Dreams in Japanese medieval times and non-symbolic directness
The non-symbolic in contemporary times
This paper discusses cases in which the images that appear in sandplay therapy and dreams are direct representations without symbolism, then considers how they are related to various pathologies and eras. Prof. Kawai introduces several pathologies characterized by the presence of non-symbolic images, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and also examines the implications of non-symbolic images from a historical and cultural perspective.
In medieval Japan (late 11th to 16th century), for example, our dreams were shared with others and images were understood non-symbolically. Prof. Kawai points out that with ASD on the rise, and also with the blurring of the boundary between the real and the unreal, direct and non-symbolic images are once again predominant today.