Prof. Kawai’s Article “Play Therapy in Developmental Disabilities and Atypical Development” was published in the journal Support for Child-Rearing and Clinical Psychology (Vol. 17).
Prof.Toshio Kawai’s article “Play Therapy in Developmental Disabilities and Atypical Development” was published in volume 17 of the journal Support for Child-Rearing and Clinical Psychology (pp. 42-49).
- Why have developmental disabilities increased?
- The diagnostic history of developmental disabilities
- Report on developmental disabilities projects at the Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University
- Developmental disabilities as a weakness of self
- Reasons why psychotherapy was considered ineffective for developmental disabilities
- Psychotherapy that gives birth to a sense of self
- The sense of self born in a narrow, confined space
- Increased clinical indicators, such as ASD and social structure
- Social structure with more options, but invisible conflict and confrontation
- One’s sense of self in the contemporary world
- The importance of places outside the parent-child relationship in development – not being excessively supportive
This article addresses the fact that the number of children and adults with developmental disabilities has been increasing since 2000 and describes the traits of developmental disabilities and different types of child-rearing support.
Developmental disabilities are cognitive disorders characterized by symptoms or problematic behaviors that lack psychological significance. In this regard, Prof. Kawai says that it currently seems that developmental disabilities are over-diagnosed, a tendency that has been influenced by the modern state of mental health research and that is relevant to how parents and society support children as developmentally disabled. With this in mind, Prof. Kawai proposes that we view developmental disabilities as a “weakness of self”.
In general, people with developmental disabilities are said to have the following features: difficulty in separating from others or in choosing for themselves, susceptibility to the influence of others, and a lack of initiative. Prof. Kawai proposes that, because these features relate to a “weakness of self,” “psychotherapy that gives birth to a self ” is necessary to treat them. He also discusses the essence of developmental disabilities and psychotherapeutic approaches to them, based on successful cases.
Prof. Kawai proposes that the increase in symptoms that appear to be developmental disabilities is related to changes in the social structure and the consciousness of our time. That is to say, the more that the social structure has allowed individual freedom, the more a sense of self is desired, because people need to choose many things by themselves. However, the change in the parent-child relationship and connection via social networking services have made it difficult for individuals to separate from others or to develop one’s individual sense of self. This has increased the mental symptoms typical of developmental disabilities in modern times.
Prof. Kawai observes that the number of children with developmental imbalances, such as atypical development, being psychologically immature, or having irregular growth during developmental stages, is increasing greatly. According to this article, training or education may further undermine the development of a sense of self, so to promote its development, it is necessary to not be excessively supportive.
Unlike in the past, when children were raised by the community, family structures have become increasingly nuclearized. Therefore, child-rearing support from places other than the parent-child relationship is necessary. Prof. Kawai proposes that play therapy is one child-rearing strategy that can support children’s sense of self.
(Reported by：Hisae Konakawa, Program-Specific Research Fellow)
The online link for the journal “Support for Child-Rearing and Clinical Psychology”