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Research by Senior Lecturer Yoshiyuki Ueda and Colleagues Published in the International Journal ‘Computers in Human Behavior’

Art created using artificial intelligence (AI) has flourished in recent years, but compared to visual arts such as painting and photography, AI-generated poetry and literature are still in their infancy. Such AI-generated art can be divided into two categories: “human out of the loop (HOTL),” which is completed without human intervention, and “human in the loop (HITL),” in which humans are involved in some way.

A research group comprising Yoshiyuki Ueda (corresponding author) (Senior Lecturer, IFoHS), Jimpei Hitsuwari (first author) (Doctoral course, Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University), Woojin Yun (PhD Student, Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University), and Dr. Michio Nomura (Associate Professor, Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University) conducted a study using the world’s shortest form of poem, the haiku: they asked 385 people to evaluate 40 haiku poems that were either HOTL or HITL (20 each), as well as 40 haiku poems published in the Saijiki (a catalog of professional-made haiku using season-specific words).

The results were that HITL haiku were rated the most beautiful, and human works and HOTL haiku were rated equally beautiful. In addition, the evaluators were unable to discern whether the haiku were created by humans or AI, and a phenomenon known as “algorithm aversion” was identified: the more haiku were thought to have been created by an AI, the lower the beauty rating. This research suggests the following three possibilities: that in the field of haiku creation, AI is becoming comparable to human creativity; that people may hold certain values regarding AI art, and; that making art with AI can lead to more creative artworks.

The results were published online in the British international journal ‘Computers in Human Behavior’ on October 4, 2022 (local time), and reported in other media as follows.

<List of media reports>

Kyoto Shimbun, November 2, 2022

Kyodo News, November 2, 2022

Sankei Shimbun, November 2, 2022

Mainichi Shimbun, November 3, 2022

Asahi Shimbun, November 7, 2022

<Title of paper and authors>
Does human–AI collaboration lead to more creative art?: Aesthetic evaluation of human-made and AI-generated haiku poetry

Authors: Jimpei Hitsuwari, Yoshiyuki Ueda, Woojin Yun, Michio Nomura
Computers in Human Behavior
Click on the image to see a summary of the paper.